Terms for translating Spinoza’s Ethics discussed during my stay in Warsaw on 2/21 with I. Krońska. /my suggestions/
- Causa sui = the cause of itself. To avoid ambiguity in the definition I suggest that “intelligo” be translated as “we understand”.
- Esse, est = wherever the context requires: to exist, in other places: it is, to be / in any case esse not: living, but: existence /.
- Modus = depending on the context: form, variety, state.
- modificatio = modification or variety.
- affectiones substciae = affecting the substance, but please note that the genivus is ambiguous, it may be subjectivus or objectivus
- cogitatio: not: consideration, but rather: thinking, in some places it may be thought, you can also/ with a necessary note / introduce the term already used by Ajdukiewiczs in some cases when translating Meditationes: consciousness or conscious experience. Some fragments of Ethics call for such a translation / e.g. where the forms or varieties of “cogitationum” include amor /.
- Intelectus = reason, and where ratio also translate as “reason”, but add in brackets: / ratio /. – I do not think these two terms clearly differ in their content in Spinoza. In any case, “sense” cannot be used as the equivalent of “intellectus”. If the translation as reason were not to be accepted, then translate by “intellect”, however that would seem rather blatant.
- Involvit: = entails / not “includes” / In some places you can also translate by “involves” /.
- Necessario esse: “to exist with necessity” / or be / and not “to necessarily exist”, because that would be modus existentiae, which generally does not occur in Spinoza. Only with regards to substance could necessario esse be translated as “to necessarily exist”.
- Distinguish terminologically: commune cum se – which describes the so-called “common”/ the same / features from “commune inter se” which refers to a common / one for two / part. Although Spinoza does not maintain terminological consistency himself, it does not occur in a way that would prevent that difference in terminology from being preserved in Polish also in cases where different terms are used by Spinoza.
- Finitus – resp. Infinitus: two meanings: a/ finite / resp. infinite / b / limited / resp. unlimited [translate / Translate depending on the context
- Natura naturans: nature that produces nature
Natura naturata: nature embodied in nature / provide the original term in parentheses the first time it appears or, alternatively, a note that clarifies the meaning based on the text and ambiguities that may arise during reading. /
Terms for Spinoza’s Ethics II
- actu / esse /: not: actually. but “in realization: or “in actualization “. Some points call forits translation as: to exist “effectively” or “to exist actually” / in opposition to in potentia /.
- determinare = determine, derivative: determined,
determinatus ad operandum / agendum / adapted for action / not: “for influence” /
- “certo” = certain, in a strictly determined way, not “some” /
- certo et determinato modo: in a strictly determined way / provide the original term upon the first mention /
- conflari – to be a fusion / fused /, not: to consist of / cases where continuity occurs /
- causa transiens: not: transcendental cause – this term is heavily burdened with meanings stemming from elsewhere / Kant / expressing something entirely different from what it is supposed to convey in Spinoza. It can be explained by: a cause transcending beyond an object and into another – transitive cause?
- pati ab objecto: to experience something from an object
- cognitio = cognition, in certain parts: knowledge
- infinita infinitis modis sequitir – in some places: infinitely many in infinitely many ways, and in others: infinitely many in infinitely many variations, depending on the context.